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カール・ベイルマン ―巡礼―個展(2024.1.9~14))を終えて
カール・ベイルマン ―巡礼― 個展(2024.1.9~14))を終えて
After finishing the Solo Exhibition CARL BERGMAN ーJYUNREIー (January 9 – 14, 2024)

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カール・ベイルマンは、ヘルシンキ(フィンランド)と京都(日本)を拠点に活動する写真家である。今回は写真により、自らの主観的な経験と、歴史という時間軸を合わせた重層的な作品を試みた。彼の生まれ持った旺盛な好奇心は、持続的な記録による物語と抽象的な美学を融合させる方法を模索し続けている。この「巡礼」プロジェクトは、特定の場所でつくられた写真によるインスタレーションになる。
宮本武蔵の生涯の物語は、相反する歴史的証言により、過去何度も書き直されてきた。ここでの目的は、過去に生きた人物の足跡を再構築し、「時」の中に身を置く事、その過程で、鑑賞者の人生において、「儀式」や「巡礼」のような瞬間をインスパイアできたらと思うのである。
世界的な危機が次々と訪れ、未来にどこか漠然とした不安を感じる中、時間そのものを研究することで、私たちに展望と明晰さを与えてくれる一助になればと願うのである。
Based between Helsinki (FI) and Kyoto (JP), Carl Bergman expands on photographic techniques to create layered works that orbit around temporality and the examination of subjective experience in the present. His curiosity routinely leads him to explore ways of breaking apart and recombining documentary storytelling with the aesthetics of abstraction. His 'Junrei' -project uses site specific installations and photography to retell key moments from the life story of Miyamoto Musashi and comments on how that story has been rewritten time and time again with the aid of conflicting historic accounts. The aim here is to inspire people to engage with past generations and to position themselves in time through literature, assume control over their own inner lives and create anchor points of meaning and significance in the physical world through acts of personalised rituals and pilgrimage as the cultures we live in become more and more digitized. With the world seemingly stumbling from one global crisis to another, study of time itself can give us perspective and clarity, making it a little bit easier to look ahead, to feel empowered instead of trapped in the present.

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展覧会場

展示作品
1 有馬 喜兵衛(木に葉とインクー美作 岡山)
2 吉岡(松に絹織ー八大神社 京都府)
3 巌流(砂に流木ー巌流島 山口県)
4 二天(座禅岩に苔ー熊本県)
5 時間(岩に和紙ー霊厳堂 熊本県)
6 無題(木に苔、爪、髪―熊本県)

1. ‘Arima Kihei'
(Ink & leaves on wood - Mimasaka in Okayama prefecture, Japan)
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Arima Kihei, a ronin on his musha shugyō (warrior’s pilgrimage) arrived in Musashi’s home town in 1597 and put up a wooden sign post, presenting a challenge to anyone who would dare to answer it. Contenders were instructed to write their names on the board. When Musashi, still known as Bennosuke at this time, heard of this challenge he rushed to the
scene and painted over the whole signpost with ink, preventing anyone else from writing down their names. This quite apparently angered Arima Kihei who agreed to fight the boy. Here Musashi engaged in his first duel, killing a man for the first time, using a wooden quarterstaff. He was only thirteen years old.

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2. ‘Yoshioka’
(Silk scarf on a pine tree forest behind Hachidai-jinja - Kyoto, Japan)
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Quite soon after these events, at around fifteen, Musashi left his home town and relatively little is known of his movements until he, at twenty-one years old appeared in Kyoto, determined to challenge the shogun’s teacher, the master of the Yoshioka fencing school Yoshioka Kenpo, to a duel. However, by the time Musashi reached Kyoto, Kenpo had perished and his sons, Yoshioka Seijuro, Densichiro and Matashichiro respectively headed the school.
Musashi engaged the brothers in a series of fights, first defeating Seijuro at a now lost location on the outskirts of Kyoto, both utilising wooden swords, bokuto. Musashi emerged victorious, breaking Seijuro’s arm who promptly retired from his position at the head of the Yoshioka school and became a zen monk. Next of the Yoshioka was Densichiro who faced off with Musashi outside Rengeō-in, also known as Sanjūsangen-dō, a buddhist temple in the Higashiyama district in Kyoto. They, too, fought with wooden swords but this time the exchange proved fatal for Densichiro, who received a mortal blow to the head and perished.
Musashi’s final skirmish against the Yoshioka clan was fought in Ichijoji, under the leaves of the Sagarimatsu tree near the Hachidai shrine in northeast Kyoto. Feeling his clan’s honor tarnished by the defeats of his siblings Matashichiro challenged Musashi. However, Matashichiro, the clan’s last male heir differed from the other brothers in that he was only approximately twelve years old at the time. Safe to say Musashi did not expect the fight to be a duel.
At this point Musashi had established a pattern of arriving late to face his opponents, a habit which he now proceeded to break, this time showing up hours in advance, hiding out of sight and observing as approximitely sixty students of the Yoshioka school arrived in Matashichiro’s tow, with the intention of staging an ambush. Musashi managed to turn the situation around by taking the Yoshioka by surprise, stabbing and instantly killing Matashichiro. As he withdrew from the hill where the skirmish took place he battled the enraged Yoshioka students, killing them in large numbers. During this ordeal, Musashi later recounted, he spontaneously started using his wakizashi (short sword, side-arm) in his off-hand in addition to his regular katana in the other in order to fend off attacks from many directions at once. This two handed technique ended up becoming a trademark, if you will, of his and the basis of his own school of “Niten Ichi-ryu” (Two swords/heavens as one).
All the samurai back then carried two swords but only used one at a time. The shorter wakizashi was, for the most part, intended for close quarters combat in confined spaces where the length of a katana would’ve rendered it clumsy to use. As a consequence of these events the famed Yoshioka school came crumbling down but the family line and name were preserved through marriage and the following generations’ success in silk manufacture and trade.

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3. ‘Ganryu’
(Driftwood on sand - Ganryujima in Shimonoseki, Japan)
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In the Spring of 1612, a watershed moment took place. One of the most famous duels that pit two of the most renowned swordsmen of their time, Musashi and Sasaki Kojiro, against one another on Funajima (modern day Ganryujima) island, between Honshu and Kyushu, where Kojiro along with his retinue waited.. and waited. The match was scheduled to take place at dawn but on the morning of the fight Musashi slept late in Shimonoseki and made no effort to hasten his arrival. According to contemporary sources, over three hours late, he had himself rowed over to the island and according to legend during the boat ride carved himself an extraordinarily long (measuring 1,26m) bokken, a wooden sword, out of either a spare oar or a piece of driftwood. His purpose was to counter the longer than customary nodachi sword (measuring 90 cm) which Kojiro was known to employ. In other words, Musashi was well versed in his opponent’s technique, valued their skill greatly and saw it best to, once again, utilize strategy in a broader sense in order to achieve victory.
To reiterate, Musashi arrived on the island hours behind the appointed time. As the row boat he was traveling in approached the shoreline, Musashi jumped out and into the shallow water, taking care to hold the tip of his wooden sword submerged, thus concealing the actual length of his new weapon from his opponent. Kojiro understandably felt humiliated by Musashi’s late arrival, was furious and ran to the water’s edge to meet his approaching opponent. There is an account of this moment when the two finally came face to face according to which the agitated Kojiro drew his sword and tossed his scabbard into the water to which Musashi responded by telling him he had already lost; A swordsman wouldn’t throw away his sheath unless he knew he would have no chance to ever use it again. According to the witness account, this line sparked Kojiro into motion and the combatants struck as one and only once - Kojiro collapsed onto the sand. The reach of Musashi’s bokken had taken Kojiro by surprise, he had suffered a blow to his head and his own strike had missed.
This base idea of a duel, or actually any situation or experience, extending outside the physical limits of the event and into the realm of the mind and thereby being within reach of psychological manipulation repeats in Musashi’s life and writings over and over again. His purpose was to throw his opponents off-balance, to bait them into his own rhythm
using careful advance preparation and practice, to reinvent himself over and over again and to defy expectations.
Musashi lived quite literally between two worlds; The old belligerent “Warring states” Sengoku period ended and the Edo period that brought over 250 years of relative peace to Japan began in 1600 when Musashi was 16 years old. This polarity, which from a martial perspective meant the glorification of strength, cunning and winning by any means necessary during the Sengoku period and morphed into a culture that emphasized technique, style, etiquette and rituals during the Edo period, was mirrored in Musashi’s life and development. The first half of his life was spent in pursuit of maximal efficiency which culminated in a very brutal way in this most famous duel of his in shallow water in the
Kanmon strait against Sasaki Kojiro. This is also where most of the weaponized popular culture accounts of his life end – at a certain height of martial prowess and drive for victory. The next, second half of his life differed from the first in many ways; After his victory on Funajima, Musashi, according to accounts later written by his students, felt sadness for having extinguished the unique flame of his opponent. Although he continued to engage in duels in the latter part of his life, he never used a forged sword and never took another life in a match again but instead was content to use a bamboo cane or a bokuto (wooden training sword) to disarm or dominate his opponents.

4. ‘Niten’
(Moss on zazen stone - Outskirts of Kumamoto, Japan)
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After his final fight to the death, Musashi travelled and immersed himself more and more in meditation, construction and arts separate from kenjutsu. He practiced among other arts tea ceremony, painting, sculpture and poetry. In 1640 he finally settled down in Kumamoto on the island of Kyushu as a guest and teacher of daimyo Hosokawa Tadatoshi. However, he did not end up spending a great deal of time in the Kumamoto castle itself but instead travelled back and forth to the mountains west of the city. Along the way, there is a large stone, roughly three by three meters in width and length and flat on the top where it’s said that Musashi used to rest and practice Zen Buddhist zazen (meditation). During these years, having felled his last true rival, Musashi occupied himself in inner struggles - trying to attain a greater understanding, harmony and clarity of the mind.

5. ‘Jikan’
(Washi on stone - Reigandō, Kumamoto prefecture, Japan)
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Reigandō is a cave Musashi eventually ended up calling home, west of Kumamoto. The cave is, as caves tend to be, very ascetic. The wide mouth offers only extremely limited protection from the elements. In the middle of the cave there’s a rock on which Musashi sat as he wrote ‘Go Rin No Sho’ - a series of texts which ended up cementing his legacy for future generations and which has through the centuries, risen to the same league of literary works on strategy with Sun Tzu’s ‘Art of War’. ‘Go Rin No Sho’ speaks, at least superficially, of kenjutsu and strategy but a significant part of it are observations on the importance of not just learning but specifically of personal training and the new perspectives opened up by physical awakenings during and through said training. In ‘Go Rin No Sho’ Musashi also stresses over and over again the importance of patience and flexibility in both thought and technique. In this cave, Reigandō, far removed from the comforts of the civilized society, Musashi spent his last moments and eventually died, at sixty-one years old - committed to his path right until the end.

6. ‘Untitled’
(Moss, nails, hair on wood - Kumamoto, Japan)
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What remains after his death? There is some debate concerning Musashi’s gravesite and it’s claimed to be in at least three different locations around Japan. This particular one pictured in the photograph, however, is the likeliest one as it is located in Kumamoto, close to Reigandō. On the spot, there is a small park with a memorial stone and beautiful trees.
During his lifetime, he never received vast material stipends nor did he have biological children. However, in addition to ‘Go Rin No Sho’, he left behind many students and two adopted sons who would continue transmitting both his will along with his school of techniques from generation to generation right up to the present day.
Today Musashi is a well-known figure in the collective Japanese psyche. Embodying one particular ideal from the samurai era, he has been immortalised in books, movies and manga and has served as an inspiration for a host of derived characters. His persona has been through so many iterations in popular culture that while Japanese people generally recognise his name - many if not most are no longer aware that he’s a historical figure.

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左作品「巌流」

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左作品「有馬喜兵衛」 中央作品「時間」 右作品「吉岡」

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左作品「時間」 右作品「無題」

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展覧会2日目からのインスタレーション

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夕暮れ時、ガラス戸に映るインスタレーション

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Carl Bergman氏

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京都新聞(2024年1月13日)美術欄・ギャラリーに掲載された記事
フィンランドと京都を拠点とする写真家が、宮本武蔵をテーマにした個展を開催。武蔵の人生を巡礼した写真に、書籍や漫画の一部などを組み合わせたインスタレーションだ。(小吹隆文・美術ライター)
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カール・ベイルマンは、ヘルシンキ(フィンランド)と京都(日本)を拠点に活動する写真家である。今回は写真により、自らの主観的な経験と、歴史という時間軸を合わせた重層的な作品を試みた。彼の生まれ持った旺盛な好奇心は、持続的な記録による物語と抽象的な美学を融合させる方法を模索し続けている。この「巡礼」プロジェクトは、特定の場所でつくられた写真によるインスタレーションになる。
宮本武蔵の生涯の物語は、相反する歴史的証言により、過去何度も書き直されてきた。ここでの目的は、過去に生きた人物の足跡を再構築し、「時」の中に身を置く事、その過程で、鑑賞者の人生において、「儀式」や「巡礼」のような瞬間をインスパイアできたらと思うのである。世界的な危機が次々と訪れ、未来にどこか漠然とした不安を感じる中、時間そのものを研究することで、私たちに展望と明晰さを与えてくれる一助になればと願うのである。
カールはワールドビルダーであり、コンセプチュアルな静物画と解体されたモザイクの物語を専門としています。仕事でもプライベートでも、定期的に海外に連れて行ってくれますが、ヘルシンキは彼が帰ってくる場所です。バーグマンのコマーシャル作品は、グラフィアの「ベスト・オブ・ザ・イヤー」とグランド・ワンの年間コンペティションの両方で数々の賞を受賞しています。
彼の作品はいくつかのモダニズム運動からヒントを得ており、彼のアプローチは本質的にミニマリストであることが多いですが、彼は熱烈に職人的なプロセスを信じています。 ベルイマンの世界は、愛着、支配、そしてその喪失をめぐる軌道に乗っている。彼の作品では、一見平凡に見えるものを称賛するカラフルでグラフィックな観察と雰囲気を、それ自体の正当性に疑問を投げかけるようなユーモアで重ねています。この遊び心こそが、彼の視点を理解するために不可欠なのです。 この内在する疑念は、均等化要因として機能し、物事や状況に少しの魔法を吹き込む準備として見せかけの仕事を脱ぎ捨て、慣れ親しんだものは、長い間繰り返しになり、ほとんど見えなくなっています。言うなれば、頂点の瞬間だけでなく、可動域全体を鑑賞しようとする試みです

Based between Helsinki (FI) and Kyoto (JP), Carl Bergman expands on photographic techniques to create layered works that orbit around temporality and the examination of subjective experience in the present. His curiosity routinely leads him to explore ways of breaking apart and recombining documentary storytelling with the aesthetics of abstraction. His 'Junrei' -project uses site specific installations and photography to retell key moments from the life story of Miyamoto Musashi and comments on how that story has been rewritten time and time again with the aid of conflicting historic accounts. The aim here is to inspire people to engage with past generations and to position themselves in time through literature, assume control over their own inner lives and create anchor points of meaning and significance in the physical world through acts of personalised rituals and pilgrimage as the cultures we live in become more and more digitized. With the world seemingly stumbling from one global crisis to another, study of time itself can give us perspective and clarity, making it a little bit easier to look ahead, to feel empowered instead of trapped in the present.
Carl is a world builder, specializing in conceptual still life and deconstructed mosaic narratives. Both his professional and personal curiosity routinely take him abroad but Helsinki is where3 he comes home to.Bergman’s commercial work has earned him numerous awards in both Grafia’s ‘Best of the year’ and Grand One’s yearly competition.
While his work takes cues from several modernist movements and his approach is often minimalist in nature, he fervently believes in a craftsmanlike process where from is ultimately subject to content, within the boundaries of his laws of physics.
Bergman’s world is very much in orbit around attachment, control and the loss thereof. In his work he layers colorful, graphic observations and atmospheres that celebrate the seemingly mundane with humor that appears to question its own legitimacy. It’s this playfulness that’s imperative for understanding his point of view.
This built-in doubt acts as an equalizing factor, shedding the work of pretense in preparation to imbue a bit of magic back into thing and situations familiarity has long since turned repetitive and near invisible. An attempt to appreciate a whole range of motion instead of just an apex moment, if you will.

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2019年夏にフィンランドを訪問した私は、カメラマンCarl Gergman氏にお会いする機会を得ました。その折に拝見した彼の作品は「宮本武蔵の聖地巡礼」のインスタレーション写真です。それは400年前の宮本武蔵が今に繋がっていることが伝わってくる作品でした。井上雄彦の漫画「バカボンド」を読んで宮本武蔵をご存知の若者は多いと思います。私はこれを機に「五輪書」(宮本武蔵著)を読み直してみたくなりました。生きること、死ぬことをもう一度考え直すきっかけを頂いた展覧会でした。
カールさんは魅力的な日本女性と結婚されています。奥様は展覧会の資料の翻訳、搬入、会期中の通訳、記録整理など、細部にわたってお手伝い頂き、お世話になりました。深く感謝しています。
カールさんの次回の新作作品展を楽しみにしています。(ギャラリー揺 三橋登美栄)


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01/28 20:58 | 展覧会
三橋登美栄展 ―One Step at a Time―(2023.11.14~11.26)を終えて
三橋登美栄展 ―One Step at a Time―(2023.11.14~11.26)を終えて

Mountain-Walking & Town-Walking  250 Days
山歩き街歩き250日

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私たちの祖先は地球を歩き回って、あちこちに定住しました。二本足で移動したのは、人の体だけではなく、歴史そのものも歩いて移動しました。半世紀前から、移動手段としての自動車が普及し、便利で早いことに価値があるという意向と、将来のビジョンの陰り、思考の停滞が起こっています。自然離れをし、歩くことが減った人類ですが、歩く時代が終わった訳ではありません。歩くことが重要なのは、身体を自然環境と一体化させ、自分たちの存在の仕方、リズムまでも作るからです。二本足で歩く忍耐の中でこそ、考え、進歩する能力が働きます。参考文献 『歩行する哲学』(ロジェ・ポル・ドロワ著)

Our ancestors walked around the Earth and settled in various places. They created lifestyles, social housing, and diets adapted to the environment, whether it was a rugged mountainous area, a scorching desert, or a polar region covered in snow. Humans have continued to walk tirelessly. Sometimes modestly, sometimes on a grand scale, they have continued to migrate, invade, wage war, clash, relocate, and go into exile. By walking, people have established trade routes, formed paths for goods and ideas, and spread doctrines, religions, poetry, music, and legends. It is impossible to ignore this deep and continuous relationship between walking and human history. History itself is walking.
In every era, it is not just the human body that has moved on two legs. Walking with them were words, conversations, thoughts, themes, knowledge, methods, ways of thinking, education, doubts, convictions... Errors walked alongside the truth. Illusions alongside knowledge. The progress of the spirit is woven together by a succession of countless stumbles and recoveries of momentum, wandering and then rediscovering one's position.
Humanity, which has walked less, has also thought less. It is no coincidence that the spread of automobiles as a means of transportation, the belief that speed is valuable, and the shadow of a vision for the future, stagnation of thought, have all occurred simultaneously over the past half century. Moreover, it is also no coincidence that, within the spread of this immobility, a tendency to practice or take an interest in walking has emerged.
The era of walking is not over. Because their contemporaries started walking again and thinking about walking, because they were somewhat concerned about its disappearance. Walking is important because it integrates the body with the natural environment and creates the way we exist, even our rhythm. It is in the endurance of two-legged animals that the ability to think and progress works. References: "Walking Philosophy" (by Roger-Pol Droit)

≪展示作品≫
1 「遊歩」 1~15 
2 アプリYAMAPの地図コピー250日分
3 歩行250日分の記録表
4 「山歩 1」(引き戸)
5 「山歩 2」(引き戸)
6 「地の傷 」1~4
7 「森の呼吸 1」(引き戸)
8 「森の呼吸 2」(引き戸)
9 「森の呼吸 3、4」
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アプリケーションYAMAPの地図コピー250日分

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歩行250日分の記録表

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「山歩1,2」(引き戸)

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「地の傷 1,2,3」


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「遊歩」15点を積み重ねて展示

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「森の呼吸3,4」

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「森の呼吸1,2」(引き戸)

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京都北白川へ流れる琵琶湖疎水分線沿いに「哲学の道」があります。西田幾多郎や田辺元らの哲学者たちがこの道を散策し、思索に耽ったことから、この名で呼ばれるようになりました。また三方を山に囲まれている京都に、京都一周トレイルがあります。その東山コースは伏見稲荷大社から大文字山を経て比叡山に至り、京都の市街地を望み、豊かな自然や歴史、文化に触れることができます。

2023年1月、「今日から毎日歩こう!」と散策中に閃きました。歩く方角は様々で、時には行き当たりばったり、どこかへ行くためでなく、むしろ知らないものに出会うために歩きました。今まで知っていると思っていた場所の新鮮さに気づくのも楽しいです。250日、一日平均5kmの足跡を平面に再現しました。
10年ぶりの個展を多くの方々にご高覧頂き有難く思っております。会期中に頂いた沢山のお言葉を糧に、「継続は力なり」と唱えながら、今しばらく制作を続けられたら幸いです。 (三橋登美栄)

There is a "Philosopher's Path" along the Biwako Sosui branch canal that flows to Kita Shirakawa in Kyoto. It is so named because philosophers such as Kitaro Nishida and Hajime Tanabe walked this path and pondered. There is also the Kyoto One Trail, which surrounds Kyoto on three sides. Its Higashiyama course starts at Fushimi Inari Taisha Shrine and goes through Daimonji Mountain to Hiei Mountain, where you can overlook the city of Kyoto and experience its rich nature, history, and culture.
In January 2023, I had the idea of "Let's walk every day from today!" I walked in all directions, sometimes aimlessly, not to go somewhere, but rather to meet something unknown. It is also fun to suddenly notice the freshness of a place that I thought I knew before. I have reproduced my footprints for 250 days, averaging 5 km per day, on a flat surface. I would be grateful if you could see my first solo exhibition in 10 years.  I am grateful that many people have seen my first solo exhibition in 10 years. I hope that I will be able to continue my work for a while chanting "Continuity is power" based on the many words I received during the exhibition. (Tomie Mitsuhashi)


01/15 20:33 | 展覧会
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